Inspection and Gaging by Kennedy, Bond and Hoffman (and others depending on edition) is a good read about how to use precision measuring instruments and take precise measurements of parts. The book covers everything from the simple steel rule to CMM (coordinate measuring machines).
While most machining textbooks cover the basics of precision measurement, this book delves into how to use measuring tools, how to calibrate and verify measurements with those tools, and many ways of measuring all sorts of features such as holes, slots, flanges, threads, and anything else on a part that needs to be in the right place or the right size. The book also shows how not to make errors in measurements, which becomes more important as the desired tolerances grow finer (and the book tells how to properly measure in the range of millionths of an inch). The book is affordable new [What’s This?], but is available used for very little in older editions.